Photovoltaic Power Systems: 3 Amazing Parts

Photovoltaic power generation system

Photovoltaic power systems represent a marvel of modern technology, seamlessly integrating various components to harness the sun’s energy and convert it into usable electricity. Within these systems, three remarkable parts stand out, each playing a crucial role in unlocking the potential of solar systems. Let’s delve into the intricacies of these components, exploring how they work in harmony to power our world sustainably.

What three parts does a photovoltaic power system consist of?

Photovoltaic power systems usually consist of the following three parts

Photovoltaic panels:

Photovoltaic power panels are the core component of photoelectric conversion, and their main function is to convert sunlight into DC electricity. Photovoltaic power panels are usually composed of multiple solar cells. The solar cells convert light energy into electrical energy. The output voltage and current of the battery are adjusted according to the specific stringing method, and the final output is DC electrical energy.

Battery conditioner:

The battery regulator is also called a charge controller. Its main function is to control the photovoltaic panel to charge the battery and protect the safe operation of the photovoltaic panel and battery. The battery regulator can control charging according to the battery status and light intensity to avoid overcharging or undercharging of the battery.


An inverter is a device that converts DC power into AC power. Its main function is to convert the DC power generated by photovoltaic panels into power that meets the needs of homes, businesses, etc. for easy utilization. Inverters are divided into single-phase inverters and three-phase inverters according to the type of power required. The use of inverters can convert sunlight into electricity that is easier to use, thus bringing more benefits and advantages to users. .

How many main components are there in photovoltaic power generation equipment?

A basic photovoltaic power generation system is composed of solar panels, solar controllers, inverters and batteries (banks). It can be said that the better the quality, the higher the conversion efficiency, such as Growatt’s photovoltaic power inverter.

Photovoltaic power generation equipment
Photovoltaic power generation equipment

What are the three major components of a solar thermal utilization system?

heat absorbing plate core

The heat-absorbing plate core is a key component that absorbs solar radiation energy, converts it into heat energy, and transfers heat to water. The selection of materials, structural form and surface coating radiation characteristics of the heat-absorbing plate core have a decisive impact on the performance of the water heater.

The requirements for heat absorbing plates are to have a certain pressure-bearing capacity, good compatibility with water, high thermal performance, simple manufacturing process, reasonable costs, and reliable operation.

China photovoltaic industry is driving significant advancements in solar energy technology worldwide.The material of the heat-absorbing plate core is basically copper and stainless steel in US, while copper, aluminum alloy or galvanized sheet is generally used in China. Using metal as the heat-absorbing plate core has strong thermal conductivity within the normal temperature range, but its light absorption capacity is lower than that of non-metals.

Transparent cover

The transparent cover allows solar radiation to pass through without allowing the far-infrared rays generated by the heat-absorbing plate core to pass through, thus suppressing reflection losses and convection losses on the surface of the heat-absorbing plate core. It achieves a higher temperature rise in the water heater and forms an important component of the greenhouse effect.

At the same time, it also plays an important role in preventing dust, rain and snow from damaging the heat-absorbing board core. The transparent cover should meet the basic requirements of high transmittance, high impact strength, good weather resistance, good thermal insulation performance and easy processing.

When the collectors used in the north adopt double-layer covers, they generally use glass plus polycarbonate film.

The number of layers of the cover depends on the climatic conditions and working temperature of the area of use. It is generally a single layer. Double-layer covers are only used under conditions where the temperature is low or the working temperature is high. Transparent honeycomb materials are used when conditions permit.

The distance between the cover plate and the heat absorbing plate should be considered to be greater than 20mm. If the distance is too small, the heat collection efficiency will be reduced.

Insulation Materials

There needs to be an insulation layer at the bottom and around the heat collecting plate core of the water heater to reduce the heat dissipation of the water heater to the surrounding environment and improve the working efficiency of the water heater.

The basic requirements for insulation materials are good insulation performance, temperature resistance above 110°C, no decomposition, no water absorption, no deformation or volatilization, no toxic gas generation, small capacity, easy installation, and low price.

Insulation materials generally use polyurethane, polystyrene, rock wool, mineral wool, expanded vermiculite, expanded perlite, etc. Because polyurethane has a small thermal conductivity, high temperature resistance, no water absorption, is clean and hygienic, and is cheap, companies generally prefer polyurethane as the insulation material for heat-absorbing board cores.

In order to achieve the perfect combination of clean energy and environmentally friendly materials, Linorit and Honeywell jointly developed new environmentally friendly foam materials that do not destroy the ozone layer, and were the first in the world to be used for solar water heater insulation.

Because this material is much higher than other related foaming agent insulation materials in terms of performance, price and applicability in combination with solar water heaters.

It brings extremely important guarantees to the insulation and stability performance of solar water heater products, thereby promoting China’s solar energy production into a new era that complies with international environmental protection standards.

hot water storage tank

The hot water storage tank is a device used to store hot water. It has good thermal insulation properties and is a key component of the solar water heater. Its structure, materials, capacity and thermal insulation properties, as well as water replenishment and water intake methods, all directly affect the performance and reliability of the water heater. .

Commonly used materials for water tank shells include embossed aluminum plates, colored steel plates, stainless steel plates, aluminum-zinc-silicon plates and fiberglass, etc. The plate thickness is 0.20-0.50mm.

Since stainless steel plates can easily cause light pollution, they should be used as little or as little as possible. Commonly used materials for water tank liner include stainless steel plate, enamel steel plate, rust-proof aluminum, galvanized plate, fiberglass and plastic materials, etc., with a thickness of 0.55-0.77mm.

Housing and bracket

In order to combine the heat-absorbing plate core, transparent cover and insulation material into an integral whole, maintain a certain stiffness and strength, and facilitate installation and transportation, a beautiful shell is required.

The basic requirements for the shell are solid and durable, resistant to climate change, non-deformable, light in weight, easy to process, beautiful in appearance and cheap in price. The shell is generally made of steel plates, color steel plates, aluminum profiles, stainless steel plates, plastics, fiberglass and other materials.

The function of the bracket is to support the solar water heater and integrate it with the building. Materials include aluminum alloy, stainless steel, carbon steel spraying, galvanized sheet stamping and tube profile stamping brackets, etc.

At present, most manufacturers use the first two materials because of their good corrosion resistance. The solar water heater bracket should have sufficient strength and steel to ensure sufficient load-bearing capacity.

In some areas with strong daily winds, especially coastal areas, wind resistance must be fully considered during design.

What electrical appliances are included with the solar photovoltaic power generation system?

Solar photovoltaic power generation systems usually consist of the following components: solar panels, chargers/controllers, energy storage devices, inverters, and load controllers.

What are the principles and technologies of solar photovoltaic power generation?

Photovoltaic power generation is a technology that uses the photovoltaic effect at the semiconductor interface to directly convert light energy into electrical energy. ​

Principle:Photovoltaic power generation is a technology that uses the photovoltaic effect at the semiconductor interface to directly convert light energy into electrical energy. The key component of this technology is the solar cell.

Solar cells are connected in series and then packaged and protected to form a large-area solar cell module. Together with power controllers and other components, a photovoltaic power generation device is formed.

The advantage of photovoltaic power generation is that it is less subject to geographical restrictions, because the sun shines on the earth; the photovoltaic system also has the advantages of safety, reliability, no noise, low pollution, no need to consume fuel and erect transmission lines, and can generate power on site and have a short construction period.